Dictionary of Digital Security

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AES is a standard implemented in software and hardware around the world for encrypting sensitive data. The question "What is AES?" can be answered as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), a symmetric block cipher chosen by the US government to protect classified information. Invented so far Considered the most secure symmetric key encryption cipher available.Symmetric ciphers such as AES are very good at securing data such as those stored on your hard drive.When implemented properly, they are often impossible to crack, even by supercomputers.

What Does AES Mean?
The AES encryption standard includes three block ciphers, AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256.
AES-128 uses a 128-bit key length to encrypt and decrypt a message block, while AES-192 uses a 192-bit key length to encrypt and decrypt messages, while AES-256 uses a 256-bit key length. Each cipher encrypts and decrypts data in blocks of 128 bits using encryption keys of 128, 192, and 256 bits, respectively. Symmetric ciphers, also known as secret keys, use the same key for encryption and decryption. Therefore, the sender and receiver must both know and use the same secret key. The AES encryption algorithm defines a large number of transformations to be performed on data stored in an array. The first step of encryption is to put the data in an array. The password conversions are then repeated over multiple rounds of encryption.

What is the Difference Between AES-128 and AES-256?
In general, security professionals find AES safe against brute force attacks, where all possible key combinations are checked until the correct key is found. However, the key size used for encryption needs to be large enough not to be cracked by modern computers, even considering improvements in processor speeds based on Moore's law. A 256-bit encryption key is significantly harder for brute-force attacks to guess than a 128-bit key. However, since the latter takes so long to predict, it is unlikely to be a problem in the foreseeable future, even with large amounts of computing power. 256-bit keys require more processing power. For small devices where the power supply is an issue, or where latency is a concern, 128-bit switches are probably the better option.


Spam is unwanted messages, usually sent to a large number of users, that serve for purposes such as advertising, phishing, spreading malware. It is a major problem for users as it reduces the efficiency and effectiveness of emails. Antispam applications provide an effective fight against spam messages. It saves users from spam piles. Antispam applications can be very useful as anti-spam solutions if you receive a lot of spam emails. By learning "What is antispam?", you can access the best tools to deal with spam.

What Does Antispam Mean?
The goal of many phishing attacks is to obtain users' credentials. Because e-mail accounts contain very important data, spam attacks often target e-mail credentials. This data can be extremely valuable to cybercriminals. Most data breaches start with a phishing email, and phishing is often chosen by an attacker to gain foothold on a network, a place that can be used in a much more extensive attack against an organization. Phishing emails are often the first step to a malware or ransomware attack. Antispam is the use of any software, hardware, or process to prevent spam from entering a system. Anti-spam software uses a set of protocols to identify messages and prevent them from reaching the user's inbox. Most of the antispam solutions available today offer customizable solutions to suit your needs. Most software only lets approved emails enter your inbox and assumes all other incoming emails are spam.

What Features Should Antispam Have for Effective Spam Protection?
Antispam software comes with functional features such as spam prevention, quarantine, automatic filter updates, multi-account support, whitelisting and spam reporting. Anti-spam solutions not only block specific email addresses, but also search for subject lines and texts in email messages. Antispam filters automatically quarantine spam, ensuring your inbox is spam-free. Such quarantined emails are usually kept for 30 days and then deleted. You can check and recover any email that may have been quarantined during this time. Most antivirus software comes with automatic filter update feature for timely detection of new Malware threats. Automatic updates not only help keep anti-spam software up to date, but also help protect your system from new types of attacks. Some antispam software allow you to keep a list of people whose email you want to accept. The spam reporting feature allows you to report spam back to the company providing the program. This helps the company develop new types of filters based on analysis of reported spam.


Antivirus is one of the most important applications used to ensure software and hardware security. Antivirus is a security mechanism that identifies and processes infected files by detecting virus signatures. It aims to ensure network security by preventing data corruption and system crashes caused by infected files. Any protection Knowing some basic but important information about the question "What is an antivirus?" can help protect your files from being damaged.

What Does Antivirus Mean?
Viruses are a type of malicious code that can spread via mail and file transfer protocols and is often added to application programs and files. It performs various types of malicious activities on infected hosts, creating serious threats to both hosts and the network. Some viruses can maliciously occupy resources and network bandwidth, while others can control host permissions and steal user data. Some viruses can even corrupt host hardware. Antivirus applications use constantly updated databases of virus signatures to detect and process infected files. When an infected file is detected, it blocks it or warns users of its presence. The key to virus detection is the identification and matching of the virus signature. Antiviruses analyze large volumes of virus samples, extract virus signatures and store them in virus signature database. Virus signature databases are constantly updated as new viruses appear on the Internet all the time. For this reason, users should keep their software constantly up-to-date and ensure that their virus signature database is always updated to the latest version. Regular updating can effectively improve the virus detection capabilities and efficiency of devices.

What are Antivirus Types and Features?
There are many antivirus software programs such as the ones below that are customized for different purposes.
• Cloud-based antivirus software is very powerful. The software analyzes the data in the cloud and then sends the necessary command to the computer. It consists of two parts, one is the client installed on the computer and the other is the web.
• Standalone antivirus software is designed to fight certain types of viruses. USB installable options provide quick solutions in case of emergency. Some antivirus software programs of this type do not need to be installed and simply download the file and run the scan.
• Security software packages go far beyond standard anti-virus programs. The software has the advantage of scanning all viruses as well as more capabilities to protect the system. Many products also have parental control programs.


Due to data breaches, account hijacking attacks and the rise of identity theft and remote transactions, authentication is one of the most important security steps in today's digital world. Digital authentication methods such as biometric verification, facial recognition and digital identity document verification allow a person to verify their identity online. It helps. Digital authentication can be used when the person and identity document are not physically present. Inadequate authentication services can often be easily exploited by scammers. Knowing “what is authentication” contributes to your security to prevent unauthorized access.

What Does Authentication Mean?
There are many different types of digital authentication solutions available. Regulations in countries around the world set standards for the use of digital authentication solutions. For example, AML5 and eIDAS provide guidance for countries in the European Union. Digital authentication evaluates submitted data over validated datasets to verify whether a person is who they say they are. In doing so, it works by comparing something the person has with a verified data set, such as a facial biometric or identity document (for example, identification information or a biometric stored in a user's registered mobile phone).

What are the Authentication Methods?
There are many different digital authentication methods such as the following, all of which work in different ways.
• Identity Document Verification: Checks if the ID (eg driver's license, passport,) is legitimate.
• Biometric Verification: Uses selfies to determine that the person presenting the ID is the same person whose portrait appears on the ID.
• Liveness Detection: Detects whether a selfie is real by detecting spoofing attacks such as face masks.
• Knowledge Based Authentication (KBA): Generates questions based on information in the applicant's personal credit file.
• One-Time Password (OTP) Authentication: It sends a one-time password to the applicant via SMS or e-mail during the verification process.
• Trusted Identity Network: Uses the applicant's existing credentials with another provider to verify the applicant's identity and reduce conflict during the account opening and hiring process.
• Database methods: Database methods leverage data from social media, offline databases and other sources to validate information submitted by the applicant.”
"Big data is a collection of data whose volume is huge and grows exponentially over time. It is such a large and complex data that none of the traditional data management tools can store it or process it efficiently. By learning the answer to the question "What is big data?" You can learn more about the fundamentals of today's data management.



People who attack internet networks without permission are known as hackers. However, there are different types of hackers. Black hat hacker is one of them. So, what is a black hat hacker?

What Does Black Hat Mean?
The use of the term black hat dates back to the 1950s. It is a term inspired by the bad guys in western movies wearing black hats. In the digital age, it is the name given to people who maliciously infiltrate computer networks for their own benefit. Black hat hackers (black hat hackers) continue their work illegally and are not officially affiliated with any institution. Their purpose may be to infiltrate the devices of individuals or institutions, to steal information, or to damage software and render it unusable. Most of the time, it continues with cyber blackmail. They demand money to restore the system and not make the information public.

Black Hat Techniques and Ways of Protection
Black hat hackers can benefit from methods in accordance with their working systems and purposes. Knowing these methods and taking precautions is very important to ensure your digital security.
• Suspicious links are one of the most used methods in black hat attacks. When you click on the links that will appear while listening to music, downloading programs or entering untrusted sites, you may cause all your information to be captured. Thanks to the malicious software to be installed on your device, every character that comes out of your keyboard can reach the other party. For this reason, you should never click on links you do not know.
• Viruses infecting the USB may cause your device to meet viruses and make you vulnerable to attacks. For this reason, it is useful not to use USB drivers that do not belong to you.
• Your privacy can be violated by accessing the device camera and accessing the sound and images in the environment. Malware is often used for this. To protect yourself, you should check for programs that can use your device's camera and microphone and allow only those you need.
• Passwords such as “12345”, “password”, “password” are frequently used almost everywhere in the world. Black hat hackers also infiltrate devices by taking advantage of the weakness of passwords that are often used and contain personal information. It is important that you do not use the same passwords on your devices and accounts and that you use different characters as much as possible. You can also take advantage of multi-factor authentications. In this way, knowing your password is not enough to log into your account. At the same time, a different verification method is needed.


The concept of blockchain is among the most important concepts of today's internet world. Blockchain technology, which was developed in 1991 in order to provide time definitions for digital documents without the need for an approval mechanism and to prevent the original dates of these documents from being changed, was introduced in 2009 with Bitcoin, the first cryptocurrency produced with the encryption system. Aside from cryptocurrencies, blockchain has the potential to be used in many areas from finance to cybersecurity. So what is blockchain?

What Does Blockchain Mean?
The blockchain, which was used by Satoshi Nakamato in the creation of Bitcoin in 2009 and used as a sub-technology in different virtual currencies such as Ethereum, is basically a chain consisting of blocks. Blockchain technology refers to a protocol that enables data sharing in a decentralized, distributed network environment without the control or approval of a central authority. The distributed network environment represents a ledger where all numerical data and transactions are recorded, such as money transfers or customer records. Data and transactions are processed into blocks in the distributed environment at regular intervals. How many records will be in each block and after which transactions the records will form a block are specific to the design of the blockchain. Also, once a numeric data is saved in the registry, that is, in the blockchain, it cannot be changed again.

How Does Blockchain Work?
Blockchain technology ensures that digital information is kept in blocks in a distributed manner, unlike centralized systems. When a block that is part of the blockchain is created, the hash of the block is calculated. Therefore, the hash value is unique to each block, like a fingerprint, and represents the data and block held in the block. The fact that the hash value cannot be reproduced ensures the security of the data in the block. Any change made to the data in the block causes the hash value to change as well. The blocks that make up the blockchain are linked to each other by hash values. Each block carries the hash value of the previous block and its own hash value. For this reason, it is also difficult to imitate data registered on the blockchain. A copy of all records in the blockchain resides with each participant. This causes the participants to be aware of any changes in the information and records in the blocks. On the other hand, anyone in the system can verify without trusting anyone. This operation eliminates the need for a central approval mechanism.


Botnet is responsible for some of the major internet outages affecting large numbers of users around the world. The botnet network is very dangerous as they can crash critical protocol services and popular web applications used by potentially millions of users. On the topic "What is a botnet?" Knowing this can help improve hardware and network security.

What Does Botnet Mean?
Cybercriminals and scammers use a wide variety of tools to extract an illegal profit from users. One of the most common tools companies face is the dreaded botnet attack. A botnet is a group of computers or devices under the attacker's control that is used to perform malicious activity against a targeted user. The term "botnet" is a combination of the words "robot" and "network" to represent the nature of the cyber attack. In the context of cybercrime, a bot is an automated software program designed to perform a specific task. Bots can be either bad or good depending on what they are doing. A zombie bot is a type of malicious bot that turns computers and other devices into devices that a hacker can remotely control. Zombie bots are an essential component of building a botnet and carrying out large-scale cyberattacks.

How Botnets Work?
With the botnet, attackers must first trick users into installing malware in order to control multiple devices. Software can be installed by deceiving users or by exploiting device vulnerabilities. With IoT malware, attackers scan thousands of devices to find outdated and unpatched targets. Devices that do not have automatic patching mechanisms are easy targets for attacks, as they often have vulnerable firmware. After the vulnerable device is infected with botnet malware, the attacker can instruct it to flood the target with traffic for a specified amount of time. It is called a "zombie network" or "zombienet" because its network of infected machines remains dormant until it sends a central command. The malware is programmed to remain silent and undetected on the device until it receives commands.

What Is Botnet Used For?
Botnets are used for various attacks. Some attacks are launched to add more devices to the zombie network. Some are used in targeted DDoS attacks to sabotage online services. The most common botnet attacks are:
• Reading and writing system data; allows attackers to exploit additional vulnerabilities to gain an advantage against the organization.
• User activity monitoring enables an attacker to access online accounts such as a banking website.
• An attacker who wants to initiate DDoS scans as many devices as possible for vulnerabilities. Through the infected device, the local network can be scanned for additional vulnerabilities.
• DDoS is a common attack after an attacker sets up a botnet. Attackers need thousands of machines to initiate effective DDoS.
• With access to email accounts on local devices, an attacker could command a botnet to send emails to targeted recipients. The email may contain malware to spread to additional machines, or an attacker could use it in a phishing attack.



Although cloud technology has been more integrated into human life in the last 10 years, its history goes back to very old times. It has not only been used in corporate companies, but has also started to take a place in the lives of many individuals as individuals. You ask, “What is cloud technology?” By learning, you can store your files more easily and access them easily when you need them.

What Does Cloud Technology Mean?
Cloud technology is a term that refers to the storage of data by different servers and accessing this data over the internet. Thanks to the cloud technology, which is used as a virtual storage area on the Internet, individuals or institutions can reach the areas reserved for them via satellite and use these areas. The technology, which significantly reduces hard disk usage, can be used by companies of different sizes. The technology that enables small companies to be faster and to compete with large companies significantly reduces the technical costs of large companies. Individual users, on the other hand, can benefit from cloud technology to store and synchronize data on their technological devices such as phones and computers. In this way, it is easier to access common data or applications when different devices are used. In addition, in case your devices break down, you can use your cloud information, so you can easily access the information you have backed up.

Benefits of Cloud Technology
• Cloud technology provides efficient working opportunity by saving time. Cloud companies that provide services take time-consuming tasks such as server maintenance from the companies. It also supports in-company synchronized information access.
• The development of technology has caused people to need information at all times. Thanks to cloud technology, you can access data using your phone or tablet, regardless of where you are.
• Companies that want to install the hardware offered by cloud technology should make a serious investment. However, thanks to this technology, you do not need to buy any equipment or install software. You only need to pay the seasonal fee by renting.
• You can keep your information safe thanks to cloud technologies. Professional cloud space providers back up and store data on different servers. In this way, it will be easier for you to recover your lost information as a result of a possible cyber attack.
• Cloud servers use different storage areas. In this way, even if one of the servers goes offline, the other server will be online and there will be no disruption in the service purchased by the users.


Although cryptography is thought to be a term that emerged with the increase in the use of cryptocurrencies recently, it has actually occupied an important place in human life for many years. Well, what is cryptography? What does it do?

What Does Cryptography Mean?
The term cryptography, which has its origins in Greek, can be translated into Turkish as secret writing. Its history goes back thousands of years. Cryptography, which can also be briefly defined as the science of cipher, was used mostly by states to share confidential information until the 1950s. Today, it has become extremely common.
Looking at the history of cryptography, it was seen that it was used by priests in 4000 BC. However, since its use at that time was based on simple encryption techniques, it could be solved with today's technology.
In the Second World War, the studies that changed the course of the war were carried out by using cryptography methods.
It is possible to encrypt plain texts thanks to cryptography, which makes it possible for the information sent to individuals to be understood only by them. While special algorithms are used for this, there are private keys used for each message.

What Does Cryptography Do?
Cryptography is all of the methods used to ensure information security. It is frequently used in government institutions, thus ensuring the security of the government's confidential information.
Drafts of new products developed by institutions in fields such as health, technology and military are usually stored in specially encrypted texts.
Thanks to the cryptography method used in radio communication, it is possible to communicate only with people who are on the same network and know the password. Thus, it helps to prevent different people from accessing the network.

Cryptography Techniques
Techniques of cryptography also differ, as do the areas of use. Usually, a method suitable for the level of security needed is chosen.
• Symmetric encryption is among the simplest cryptography methods, although it is used frequently. There is only one key and this key is known to both the sender and the receiver.
• Asymmetric encryption has a much more complex algorithm. Two keys are used for encryption. Public keys are publicly viewable and are used to encrypt plain text. The second key is a private and private key. This key exists only between the sender and the receiver and is used to decrypt the encrypted text.
• Steganography is an encryption technique based on old years and it is based on the logic of hiding the information in the text with different methods. The receiver decrypts this, revealing the hidden content.


Cyber ​​attacks are among the types of crimes that are becoming more and more common day by day. Work carried out by targeting various technological devices may cause people to suffer material and moral damages. "What is a cyber attack?" learning and taking personal precautions can help you to prevent the problems you will experience.

What Does Cyber ​​Attack Mean?
Cyber ​​attack can be defined as infiltrating a digital system using vulnerabilities. The aim may be information theft, as well as making the system inoperable or changing the existing content. Cyber ​​attacks can come from different sources. The attacker can be a hacker who wants to gain personal gain, or hacktivists who aim to announce their political thoughts to large masses, or terrorist groups who want to risk the security of countries.

Cyber ​​Attack Methods
Attackers can use different techniques depending on their purpose and the system they want to infiltrate. In order to avoid these techniques, it is useful to pay attention to some tips.
• Using malicious software is among the most used attack types. These software usually infect your device when you open e-mail or social media messages from people you do not know. Also, downloading cracked software can make it easier to detect vulnerabilities on your device. Attackers who enter your system can steal your identity information and use it for their personal interests, as well as demand money or blackmail by preventing access to the information on your device.
• SQL injection is an attack method targeting databases. Generally, in shared servers, attackers who infiltrate from a software on the server can take over the system through various codes. With this method, they can view the areas they do not have permission to access, delete or change all the information in the database.
• DDos attack is a method that usually targets websites and servers. Fake requests are sent to the system and these requests are much higher than the server can handle. Thus, the servers are locked and it is not possible to access the website or the software. Ddos attacks on strategically important networks such as the health system can also cause serious grievances.
• Public networks, especially those used in public areas, present the vulnerability that attackers need to infiltrate your device. While your device is connecting to the network, an attacker can access your information by infiltrating your device.
• The methods used to obtain the account information of individuals are within the scope of e-fraud. Important data such as credit card and login information that you share on platforms that imitate the systems of various institutions are in the hands of the attacker.


Cyber ​​blackmail, especially in recent years, has increased and can be carried out against individuals as well as institutions without gender discrimination. Blackmail can be scary in digital networks as well as in real life. But what is "cyber blackmail"?" learning can guide you on how to protect yourself.

What Does Cyber ​​Blackmail Mean?
Cyber ​​blackmail can simply be defined as the seizure of some of your information by digital methods and threatening with disclosure if you do not do what is asked of you. Cyber ​​blackmail is a crime under the law. For the crime to take place, it is not necessary to provide the desired with the threat. The threat is enough.

Methods of Protection from Cyber ​​Blackmail The most widely used method in cyber blackmail is to gain access to people's devices. Usually, malicious software is used for this and people are randomly selected. A virus, trojan or worm may have been installed on your device through unlicensed programs or untrusted websites. In this way, the blackmailer can access personal information on your device, as well as record audio and images in the environment.
• To ensure the security of your device, you can make sure that your passwords are unpredictable.
• It is important that you only use licensed programs and downloads from official websites.
• You can check your device's authorizations and make sure that tools such as microphone and camera are used only in applications that you allow.
• You can take care not to open mails from people you do not know to your e-mail address or social media accounts.
• There are many unauthorized sites on the Internet. They imitate the addresses of trusted institutions such as banks and government agencies. The information you provide in the transactions you make through these sites reaches the attackers directly. For this reason, you should make sure that the sites you use are official addresses.

Cyber ​​Blackmail PenaltyCyber ​​blackmail is defined in law as the use of digital resources to force a person to do something they do not want to do. It is not necessary for the victim to file a complaint in order for the judicial process to begin. If blackmail is detected, the litigation process starts automatically. The person must file a criminal complaint within 8 years after being exposed to cyber blackmail. Otherwise, it will time out. However, there is no statute of limitations after the lawsuit is filed. Reconciliation cannot be offered in cyber blackmail crimes heard in the criminal court of first instance. If it is determined that the blackmail crime has been committed, the blackmailer is sentenced to imprisonment between 1 and 3 years and a judicial fine of up to 5000 days.


Cyberbullying is a form of sending or sharing harmful or malicious content to embarrass people, mostly through social media, email, messaging apps, and games. Sometimes these content are shared anonymously, making cyberbullying even more threatening. According to research, today's cyberbullying One out of every 5 teenagers between the ages of 8 and 17 will be cyberbullied. The perpetrators are usually the same age as the victim. People of all genders can bully. However, the behaviors that cause bullying by gender may differ by gender. The behavior of posting hurtful pictures or videos is higher in boys, however, statistics on cyberbullying may vary as there are different interpretations of “what is cyberbullying” and research is based on self-reporting.

What Does Cyberbullying Mean?
Cyberbullying is when someone bullies another person online, for example on a social media site, by sending an email or message. Bullying is repeated behavior by a person or group with the intent to harm another person or group. Cyberbullying can involve social, psychological, and in extreme cases, even physical harm. Sending abusive emails or hurtful messages; Cyberbullying can be done by impersonating or excluding others online, posting about people on social media, spreading false rumors, posting online media without people's permission, or online gossip. When bullying is not prevented, it can cause serious problems such as shame, guilt, fear, withdrawal, social isolation, loneliness and depression.

Who Is Cyberbullying Targeted?
Children and teenagers are often affected by cyberbullying online, as it can be difficult to deliberately avoid offensive actions in this age group. Bad messages, videos, and gossip can spread quickly on the Internet and are often difficult to eradicate completely. Copies of screenshots can be easily created and shared widely with others. This facilitates the rapid and uncontrolled spread of cyberbullying. Oftentimes, abusers or attackers go unrecognized by the victim as they use a fake or anonymous account to hide their identity. This can make it difficult to stop the bullying and for adults to intervene.


When cybercrime is mentioned, hacking comes to mind first of many people. However, it is a very comprehensive concept. People can commit crimes without knowing that it is not a crime. Therefore, "What is cyber crime?" It is very important to learn both in terms of not acting against the law and knowing your rights.

What Does Cyber ​​Crime Mean?
In order for an act that is not in compliance with the law to be considered in the category of cybercrime, it must be committed by digital means such as telephone and computer. All incidents such as violating and harming the rights of persons by the use of technological tools are included in this scope.

IT Crimes and Penalties
Cybercrime has a wide scope. Penalties for different types of crimes may vary.
• According to Article 245 of the Turkish Penal Code, the use of prohibited programs and devices is punished with a prison sentence of 1 to 3 years and a fine of up to 5000 days. The scope of this crime includes people who use programs that have duties such as damaging information systems, stealing passwords of people or storing their personal information.
• Misuse of bank or credit cards is among the most common cyber crimes. It is within the scope of this crime to use or have someone else's card used without the person's consent. His sentence varies between 6 months and 3 years. In addition, a judicial fine may be imposed. If the crime is committed by copying or counterfeiting the card, the penalty can be up to 7 years. The exception to the crime is when it is committed against close family members such as spouse, mother, father, child or sibling. In this case, the provisions of regret are applied and only the loss is compensated.
• Breaking into a system is considered a crime even if no changes are made. In case of unauthorized access to all or part of the system and continued existence, a prison sentence of up to 1 year may be imposed. It is also possible to convert the prison sentence to a fine for this crime. If the intruder system can be used for a fee, the penalty is halved.
• Those who take advantage of the vulnerabilities in the information system and cause errors in the operation of the system may be sentenced to up to 5 years in prison. If the system belongs to a financial institution, the penalty will be increased by 50%.


The concept of ""Cyber" basically means "belonging to computer networks or the Internet". In definitions related to the Internet, a concept derived from the word "cyber", "cyber realm" is used. Therefore, the term cyber is associated with the abstract infrastructure of the informatics world. The risks and dangers that arise as a result of the increase in risk and dangers are defined together with the word cyber.Concepts such as cyber crimes, cyber reporting are being heard more and more.Well, what are cyber crimes and what is cyber reporting?

What Does a Cyber ​​Report Mean?
If a cyber crime is a crime related to the complaint, the prosecution initiates an investigation on the subject when the complaint is made. As a result of the information and documents obtained, the prosecutor's office may decide that there is no need for prosecution and request non-prosecution. The decision of non-prosecution means the closing of the investigation file. As a result of the investigation, if the prosecutor's office wishes to prosecute, it issues an indictment on the subject and proceeds to the prosecution phase together with the indictment. In crimes related to the complaint, it should be noted that the complaint is time-bound. Therefore, the complaint must be made before the complaint period expires. This period is specified in the article in which the relevant crime is regulated in the Turkish Penal Code.
Not all cybercrimes are subject to complaints. In some cases, the prosecution initiates an investigation upon a cyber report without complaint. If a complaint is not foreseen for a crime, individuals can file a complaint or verbally report or file a criminal complaint to the Office of the Chief Public Prosecutor or the Anti-Cyber ​​Crime Branch Offices where they are located. The authorized prosecutor's office is the Office of the Chief Public Prosecutor located at the place where the crime was committed. If the place where you are located and the place where the crime was committed are different, your petition is sent to the Office of the Chief Public Prosecutor in the place where the crime was committed.

What are Cybercrimes?
Cybercrime or cybercrime refers to the crime committed using information systems or data, or committed against information systems or data. Cybercrime is any crime committed against the operation, security or integrity of the information system and data. Cyber ​​crimes are regulated in the Turkish Penal Code. Entering the information system, blocking, disrupting the system, destroying or changing the data, misuse of bank and credit cards, hacking and forbidden program are computer crimes regulated by law. In addition, although not counted in the Turkish Penal Code, crimes that can be committed over information systems or the internet due to their nature, that is, where the information system is used as a tool, are also defined as computer crimes. Crime types such as fraud, theft and betting can be given as examples through the use of the information system.


As cyber attacks become more common and sophisticated, comprehensive cybersecurity solutions are needed to reduce corporate cyber risk. So what is cybersecurity? Cybersecurity refers to every aspect of protecting an organization and its employees and assets against cyber threats.

What Does Cyber ​​Security Mean?
Cybersecurity is the state or process of protecting and recovering computer systems, networks, devices, and programs from all types of cyber attacks. Cyber ​​attacks are an increasingly sophisticated threat to sensitive data as attackers use new methods powered by social engineering and artificial intelligence to circumvent traditional security controls. Next-generation cyberattacks are no longer detectable with legacy approaches to cybersecurity. The spread of modern enterprise networks across on-premises infrastructure and multi-cloud environments makes it much more difficult to enforce consistent security monitoring and policy across IT infrastructure. A modern cybersecurity infrastructure consists of comprehensive solutions designed to work together, such as training, data protection, and third-party risk management.

How is Cyber ​​Security Provided?
Cybersecurity is a broad field that encompasses many disciplines. For example, most attacks take place over the network. Network security solutions are designed to detect and block these attacks. Major network security solutions include data and access controls such as Data Loss Prevention, Identity Access Management, Network Access Control and Next Generation Firewall application controls to enforce secure web usage policies. Endpoint security practices enable companies to secure end-user devices such as computers against advanced threats such as phishing and ransomware protection. Mobile devices with access to corporate data expose businesses to threats from malicious apps, phishing, and IM (Instant Messaging) attacks. Mobile security apps prevent both attacks and jailbreaking of devices. While Internet of Things (IoT) devices provide significant benefits such as productivity, they expose systems to new cyber threats. Vulnerable devices connecting to the internet for malicious exploits are prime targets, such as threat actors, a path to a corporate network, or another bot in a global bot network. IoT security protects devices for discovery and classification of connected devices, automatic segmentation to control network activities, and to prevent exploits against vulnerable IoT devices. Web applications, like anything else directly connected to the Internet, are the target of threat actors. With application security, bot attacks can be prevented and any malicious interaction with applications and APIs can be stopped.


The development of technology and the increase in its use have led to the widespread use of cyber attacks. Many hackers can infiltrate networks and software by taking advantage of the vulnerabilities of systems for their own benefit. However, cyber terrorism is much more dangerous attacks that can have serious consequences. So what is cyber terrorism? What precautions to be protected? should it be taken?

What Does Cyber ​​Terrorism Mean?
Cyber ​​terrorism is attacks on the networks of states or strategically important institutions, often based on political motivations. The biggest difference between cyber attack and terrorism is that the purpose of cyber terrorism is to cause a high amount of physical or economic damage. In cyber-terrorist acts, attackers often infiltrate government secret networks over the public internet. Events such as stopping the operation of important websites such as e-government, deactivating or modifying effective signals under military technology control, cutting the electricity networks of the region, rendering the health system inoperable can be given as examples of cyber terrorism.

Methods Used in Cyber ​​Terrorism
There are different methods used in cyber terrorism that can cause sad consequences for states and society. Knowing these methods also makes it easier to take precautions.
• Phishing is one of the most used methods in cyber attacks. The aim is to reach the person's e-mail address first. For this, attempts are usually made with the most used passwords and personal information. It is easier to infiltrate the networks of the institutions through the e-mail addresses of the employees. It is extremely important to use strong and unique passwords to avoid this situation.
• DOS attacks refer to high traffic sent to a network or server. Because of this traffic, servers will crash and critical services can be disrupted. In order to prevent the attack, various firewalls can be used, as well as foreign IP blocking.
• Malware that can be installed on devices is frequently used in cyber terrorism. These programs are usually installed through different unlicensed applications and the user is not aware of it. Due to methods such as worms, viruses, trojan horses, situations such as disruptions in public services and vulnerabilities in military systems may be encountered. In order to avoid this problem, institutions usually impose restrictions on the authorities of the employees.
• Advanced persistent threat is one of the most dangerous types of attacks. Infiltration is carried out by exploiting the vulnerabilities of the system. However, this infiltration is usually not noticed by the institution and it is possible to access the confidential information of the institution for a long time.


Cyber ​​threat is a virtual violence that not only institutions but also individuals can be exposed to. It has a wide scope and can cause serious problems. In order to protect yourself and take your precautions, "What is a cyber threat?" It is very important to know.

What Does Cyber ​​Threat Mean?
Cyber ​​threat is the name given to all cases of theft, alteration or corruption of digitally stored data. It can be a simple virus that enters your computer, or it can be a comprehensive attack that threatens national security.

Methods Used in Cyber ​​Threats
• Password theft is one of the most used methods. Brute Force attacks are generally used in this method. Passwords of your accounts are tried with special software.
• SQL injection method can be used to infiltrate databases. Various queries are sent by exploiting the vulnerabilities of the database. In this way, it may be possible to access pages that do not have access permission or to completely delete and change the system.
• After the malicious software in the files you download is installed on your device, your device can be easily infiltrated. With software such as viruses, worms, and trojans, all your account information can be captured or an environment record can be taken.

Where Does the Cyber ​​Threat Come From?
Although the sources and purposes of cyber threats vary, some generalizations can be made.
• Hackers are the people most involved in cyber threat incidents. It may attempt to infiltrate by exploiting vulnerabilities in your device or website. Its purpose is usually to gain self-interest. It can request money or use your information for its own purposes.
• Hacktivists are among the most common cyber threats in recent years. They can give their messages by taking over the systems in order to spread their thoughts to wider masses.
• Cyber ​​threats can become even more dangerous when it comes to corporate spies. They can steal confidential information or formulas of companies, as well as cause loss of prestige by leaking customer information to the public.

How to Protect From Cyber ​​Threats?
• It is important to be careful when determining the degree of access that personnel have in businesses. Care should be taken not to grant permissions that could compromise security.
• Data can be sent over encrypted networks using SSL on websites.
• Attention should be paid to password security and easy-to-guess passwords should not be used.
• Licensed software should always be used. In addition, updating the software is essential for closing security gaps.



The Dark Web is a mysterious use of the Internet that cannot or has little control over government authorities. The internet, which is used under normal conditions, passes through many filters and security protocols. Also, unwanted content can be easily banned by governments. Dark Web, on the other hand, is a system in which data is transferred directly, without any security protocols or filters. During this transfer process, a high level of confidentiality is ensured between the data provider and the Dark Web user through extensive proxy networks. This makes many illegal transactions untraceable and untraceable.

What Does the Dark Web Mean?
The simplest answer to the question of what is the Dark Web; It can be given as the use of the internet where users can access all kinds of useful or harmful information without any blocking or filtering. For this reason, many illegal transactions are carried out on the Dark Web by people who do such things. Standard website extensions; While it has extensions such as .com, .net, .org, websites on the Dark Web have completely random names and the .onion extension.

How to Enter the Dark Web?
It is not possible to access the Dark Web with common internet browsers (Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Yandex etc.). Because these browsers do not have the necessary protocols and security systems to access the Dark Web. Access to the Dark Web is done with an internet browser called Tor Browser. Tor Browser's icon is an onion. This is a reference to the fact that the extensions of the websites on the Dark Web are onion (which means onion in English).

Is It Legal to Enter the Dark Web?
There are no laws or ordinances that restrict access to the Dark Web. Accordingly, users can easily access the Dark Web and reach places that may be useful for them. Unlike the normal internet, there are many illegal websites on the Dark Web. If users take any illegal action on these websites, they may face penalties set by the law.

Is It Dangerous To Enter The Dark Web?
Particularly, it is extremely dangerous for young people to enter the Dark Web, as they may encounter many objectionable content. For adults, on the other hand, unconscious transactions on the Dark Web can lead to fraud and loss of large amounts of money. In addition, it may become possible to face blackmail, threats and similar dangers in various situations.


With the development of technology, data breach has become one of the terms frequently used in daily life. In addition to the Constitution, the importance of data protection has been mentioned by the European Union General Data Authority Regulation. So, what is a data breach, which situations are data breaches?

What Does a Data Breach Mean?
A data breach means the sharing of information with people who are not legally authorized to access them without their consent. Although they are defined in similar ways according to the countries, there are some differences between them. According to the Constitution, illegal processing of information or sharing it with others is data breach. The European Union, on the other hand, includes not only the processing of information, but also its illegal deletion, modification or sharing with unauthorized persons.

How Does Data Breach Occur?
Data breach, which is also examined within the scope of cybercrime, can be committed by malicious people or it can be caused by various mistakes. • Even if not malicious, mistakes made by employees can cause data breaches. Situations such as skipping the steps to ensure security or forwarding e-mails to the wrong people are the most common examples. In order to prevent this situation, it is extremely important to train employees.
• Institutions are responsible for keeping the information of their members and customers. As a result of cyber attacks, the seizure of data such as name-surname, credit card or address information is a data breach. Institutions that cannot ensure the security of data are also responsible for this situation as much as the attackers.
• Attacks by institutions within the scope of social engineering via fake emails are also considered data breaches. At this point, it is not the responsibility of the institutions and people should be careful about the mails coming from different sources to ensure their security.
• Institutions may cause a data breach if employees do not limit their authority. An employee who reaches an unauthorized area may not only obtain information, but also leak it outside the organization.
• Malware is often used in data breaches. Software such as worms, trojans, and turtles installed on people's devices enable easy access to information on devices and recording the image and sound in the environment. For this reason, it is extremely important not to enter untrusted websites and not to use unlicensed programs.
• Data breaches are usually carried out in the digital environment, but are not limited to this. Physical data theft can also happen. For this, institutions must keep documents that may cause data breaches in locked cabinets.


Digital trace is the impression you create on the Internet through your online activity. In other words, it is the trace of intentional and unintentional data you leave behind while surfing the Internet. Cookies usually come to mind when you say digital trace. A site you visit leaves a "cookie" on your browser, which can make you marketers and others. It contributes to your digital footprint as it allows you to track it. However, the digital trace includes much more than cookies. For example, the type of browser you use, your screen resolution, IP address and other indicators that you are probably not aware of are similarly recorded. Being informed about it helps to manage traces and create a positive digital image.

What Does a Digital Trace Mean?
Digital traces are obtained from data on users; It consists of records of all digital actions, including posts on social media platforms, “private” correspondence, websites visited and online purchases. There are two main classifications of digital traces, active and passive. An active trace is defined as an intentional trace of data left behind by an individual. For example, emailing someone, posting a blog, or posting a Tweet on social media, a Facebook status update, or a photo on Instagram are classified as active followers. Passive traces are defined as unintentional traces created by users on the Internet, unlike active traces. For example, using apps and websites that use geolocation leaves passive traces.

How to Manage Digital Tracks?
Your digital footprint is an important part of your online reputation. You can follow the steps below to manage your digital footprints and prevent unauthorized information sharing:

• Search your name on different search engines and set an alert for future notifications. Setting up an alert using Google alerts notifies you of new content as it becomes available, making future track management easier.
• Have different email addresses. Thus, you can prevent professional and personal accounts from being automatically associated with each other. Different email addresses also help in case of data breach. When attackers hack a database, they look for email and password combinations. If you use different email addresses, it will be harder for hackers to match one account with another.
• Adjust privacy settings on social media platforms. Creating privacy settings and regulating who can access your social media feeds is helpful in establishing boundaries between private and public spaces.
• Be careful in all our activities and avoid negative posts that you may regret in the future. The internet has an incredibly long memory, so post content that matches the impression you want to create.


Digital transformation is among the inevitable requirements of the technology age. It is an issue that every institution that wants to continue to exist and grow in the sector should also focus on. So what is digital transformation?

What Does Digital Transformation Mean?
Digital transformation; It is a term that means the integration of institutions in the field of technology. Its scope, on the other hand, is extremely wide and may vary according to the business, and it refers to the process of utilizing digital technologies whenever possible to adapt to the changing and transforming society culture with the development of technology.
The history of digital transformation is based on the inclusion of the term WWW, also known as the World Wide Web, in human life. However, it became more common in the 2000s. It is the process of converting analog information in the hands of businesses and government institutions into digital. Although the transformation process is challenging, it brings many advantages for employees and managers.

In Which Sectors Is Digital Transformation Performed?
Although digital transformation is of great importance for almost every institution, it is even more important in some areas.
• E-commerce is among the best examples of digital transformation. E-commerce companies, which receive billions of dollars in investments in the world, make it possible for customers to shop with a single click. It does not only consist of the shopping process, but also issues such as reporting, planning and security are within the scope of digital transformation.
• Digital transformation, which is becoming more and more widespread in the field of accommodation, enables people to easily make reservations in almost every country in the world. While online travel agencies are becoming more and more widespread, companies that are not included in this transformation lose their popularity.
• Banking activities are among the most successful examples of digital transformation. Individuals can complete all financial transactions they want to perform through internet banking. However, the transition process is sensitive as the safety of the infrastructures used in the systems is much more important than in other sectors.
• Thanks to the digital transformation carried out in the field of health, people can access health information through electronic media. Thus, systems can be managed much more efficiently.
• Digital transformation shows itself not only in private companies but also in government institutions. Many strategically important areas are managed through electronic systems.
• With the digital transformation seen in the education sector, people can attend online classes without being stuck with the concepts of place and time. In this way, it has become much easier for people to develop themselves.

E - F - H - I



The concept known as Ethical Hacking basically means breaching system security with necessary permissions to identify threats and data breaches on a network. In other words, the process of detecting the elements that threaten system security proceeds in a planned, approved and, more importantly, legal way. Ethical hackers, on the other hand, are experts who try to find the weak points of the system so that it is not attacked by malicious people. So what is ethical hacking?

What Does Ethical Hacking Mean?
Ethical hacking is finding ways to strengthen the security of a network or system, collecting and analyzing necessary information. Ethical hackers are hired by organizations and ask them to detect vulnerabilities and data breaches of their own systems. Expert ethical hackers fully analyze the system, improving its security footprint and thus making it more resilient against possible attacks. Ethical hackers are also called "White Hat Hackers".

How to Be an Ethical Hacker?
While ethical hackers pay attention to many things, they usually focus more on:
• Changes in security settings
• Revealing sensitive and important data
• Injection attacks
• Violations in authentication protocols
• Security of components used on the network or system that can be access points

What are the Duties and Responsibilities of Ethical Hackers?
There is a roadmap determined by the legal framework for ethical hacking. Most importantly, white hat hackers who do this work act within their own responsibility, depending on ethical obligations. The most important rules of ethical hacking are as follows:
• The ethical hacker must obtain consent and full approval from the organization that owns the system before starting to work.
• Notifies the relevant organization of the planned day, time and size of the transaction before carrying out the investigations.
• It is obliged to report all vulnerabilities and violations that it detects after the transaction.
• When any security vulnerability is detected as a result of the examination, all traces of the hacking process should be cleaned. Thus, other malicious hackers are prevented from infiltrating the system through these vulnerabilities.
• The ethical hacker must keep all the information he obtains confidential. It must sign and fully comply with a confidentiality agreement if necessary to secure the network, system, and other purposes.



Security systems such as firewalls constitute the most important defense line of networks against increasing cybercrime. Knowing "What is a Firewall?" allows you to have a wide application area with software and hardware-based application options. Firewall monitors inbound and outbound traffic on a device, scanning it for any signs of malicious activity. If it detects anything suspicious, it instantly blocks it from reaching its target. Not just computers; web servers, phones and IoT devices are capable of using the internet. A firewall is required for any device that connects to the Internet.

What Does Firewall Mean?
A firewall, also known as a firewall, is a device or software that acts as a barrier against traffic from external sources such as the internet. Firewalls applied to networks block cyber threats such as unauthorized access to the network and everything connected to it. Current technology has analytical capabilities that can stop advanced cyberattacks such as malware, ransomware, and suspicious emails. The Wi-Fi router that connects the home network to the Internet Service Provider (ISP) has a low firewall protection. Armed with threats like next-gen ransomware, determined attackers can easily bypass firewalls that only monitor ports and communication protocols. The best protection for networks is dedicated firewalls that provide complete protection for all types of attacks. These products, which can be software or hardware based, monitor all communication ports for unauthorized access and keep users' data safe.

What Features Should a Firewall Have for Maximum Protection?
The more advanced the firewall, the more capable it is at stopping new emerging cyber threats. Next generation firewall applications provide comprehensive protection to endpoints with important tools such as ZBF, VPN and IPS. Zone-Based Firewall (ZBF) allows to define zones that may require different traffic control policies for each part of the network. Virtual Private Network (VPN) Management provides easy integration of remote, secure access to a private network over a public or public network. Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) or Intrusion Detection System is usually a built-in function that stops attacks by identifying known exploit profiles and stopping them before they start. The application control feature defines firewall policies for social media and micro applications based on web-based applications. The web control feature provides URL filtering, managing IP addresses and domains that allow policies to regulate access to services by individual or group identity. Admins can set policies to allow or deny access based on category or even reputation.


Forensic informatics is the science that provides the digital data of events and activities taking place in the digital world and using this data for the purpose of collecting, compiling, analyzing and storing evidence. Data related to the said activities, Information and evidence must be collected.Forensic informatics comes into play at the point of collecting this data, information and evidence, if necessary, recovering and investigating.Well, what is forensic informatics?

What Does Forensic Informatics Mean?
Forensic informatics means the branch of science that deals with collecting information and documents of illegal activities in the digital world or in electronic devices. While the term digital world refers to all servers and internet sites that are open to online access, electronic devices refer to computers, hard disks, telephones and similar devices with data processing and storage technology in electronic media. Thanks to forensic computing, it becomes possible to detect many cyber crimes. Forensics can perform retrospective research on existing devices or the digital world, as well as perform operations such as instant tracking and long-term monitoring of digital suspects or hackers, and tracking their online movements.

What are Cyber ​​Crimes?
Cyber ​​crimes that can be investigated and prosecuted by forensic informatics can be listed as follows.
• Unauthorized recording of private or confidential information and documents belonging to a person or institution and the use or sale of such documents against the owner of the document,
• Collecting, storing or distributing information that may harm a person's professional career or reputation,
• Selling the confidential information of the institution he/she works for to a competitor or stealing the relevant information by a staff member,
• Accessing someone's computer or similar mobile device without their knowledge,
• Using computers within a business to perform an illegal transaction,
• Using fake websites, e-mails, sms and similar communication tools to defraud others,
• Saving, copying, storing, selling or using someone else's credit card information,
• Unauthorized access to the digital information system of a website or business.
All these and similar cyber crimes are followed by forensic information and action is taken according to the law.



Hack has become a term that is frequently heard with the existence of technology in a significant part of human life. It can leave individuals or institutions in a difficult situation by obtaining their information or making systems unusable. "What is a hack?" You can learn and minimize your risk of being hacked by taking precautions.
Translated into Turkish as hacking, hacking is the name given to all methods of exploiting vulnerabilities and weaknesses in systems. Hacking can be implemented in different ways, and its purposes also vary.
• When you enter untrusted sites or use unlicensed software, it is possible to have keyloggers in the programs installed on your device. In this way, attackers begin to see every character you type on your keyboard. It can easily access your computer or sites by obtaining your passwords.
• Special software is used in Brute Force attack and your password is tried to be guessed. First, the most used passwords such as "password", "12345" are tried. Then, experiments are made by following a certain algorithm.
• Ddos is a type of attack on websites. Bot users are sent to your website via different IP addresses. Sudden server requests by these users may cause your site to crash.
• Phishing is a method of accessing your information using fake interfaces sent to you. For example, when you click on a link to your social media accounts or e-mail address, it directs you to the interface of a platform you always use. When you enter your information, it is automatically shared with the other party.

How to Avoid Being Hacked?
There are many hacking methods used by attackers. But keeping in mind the basic tips will keep you safe from many attacks.
• The most important point you should pay attention to is never to use illegal software. The unlicensed program you download from the Internet may cause a virus to enter your device.
• When choosing your passwords, you can make sure that they are as long as possible and contain letters, numbers and special characters. In addition, information such as your name, surname, date of birth should not be included.
• You should not open e-mails and messages from sources you do not know.
• You should only host your website with reliable hosting companies and check that your software is up-to-date.
• You should pay attention to what permissions the applications and add-ons you install require. You can turn to alternatives instead of programs that require access at a level that may put your security at risk.


With the development of technology, the number of people who want to take advantage of the vulnerabilities in the systems has increased and cyber security has become an important sector. However, "What is a hacker?" Since the correct answer to the question is not known exactly, the issue is viewed from a single perspective and hackers are seen as malicious people who take over the systems.

What Does Hacker Mean?
Hacker is the general name given to people who enter systems without permission. It is translated into Turkish as "computer hacker". However, hackers are not always malicious people and can use their skills for good. Hackers are experts at detecting vulnerabilities in systems. They log into the systems through the detected weaknesses. There are different methods they use for this. One of the most used methods is password weaknesses. Studies have shown that up to 40% of people in the world use similar passwords. In addition, they can benefit from various software such as trojans, viruses and worms. Hackers, who frequently show themselves on the dark web, can steal users' credit card information, make unauthorized transactions, access documents that violate their personal privacy, perform cyber blackmail, participate in efforts to discredit institutions, or try to discredit institutions. They sell their confidential information to other states. Looking at the history of the term hacker, it is generally seen as a culture and information is gained from experience over time. However, ethical hackers have often graduated from computer and software engineering at universities and developed themselves in these areas.

What are the Types of Hackers? When it comes to hackers, it is wrong that only malicious hackers come to mind. There are also different types of hackers that classify them according to hat colors, which have a great impact on the development of technology.
• The purpose of black hat hackers is to gain self-interest through hacking. They often steal corporate information and sell it for money.
• White hat hackers are also known as ethical hackers. They conduct their work legally and help strengthen systems by identifying their weaknesses.
• Gray hat hackers have a place between ethical and black hat hackers. They detect the vulnerabilities of various institutions by infiltrating their systems without permission. They often ask for money to share this information.
• Hacktivists, whose numbers have increased in recent years, use the hacking method to share their worldview with a large audience. They often share their messages by hijacking sites with high visits.


What Does Hackerspace Mean?
Hackerspace is not a playground, community, or hacker community, contrary to popular belief. While the word ""hack" has negative connotations, "hack" in the hackerspace example is associated with inventing, innovating, and experimenting. Most hackerspaces are nonprofits. Founder of the hackerspace movement, which first started in Germany in the 1990s; C-base is a non-profit organization created to increase knowledge and skills related to computer software, hardware, and data networks. The use of C-base hackspace in the Chaos Communication Camp event was effective in the spread of the movement, first to America and then to other countries of the world. Chaos Communication Camp is an international hackers meeting held every 4 years by the Chaos Computer Club. Founded by Paul Bohm in 2006, hackerspace.org is a wiki-based website that maintains a list of hackerspaces and lays out patterns for how to start and run a hackerspace. Today, there are more than 2,400 hacker domains on six continents.

How to Use Hackerspace?
A hackerspace can be used to collaborate on a product or technology. Hackerspace members, each bringing their own unique elements, collaborate and work together to improve the product or technology. For example, a hackerspace dedicated to developing 3D printers may have specialists in printing, electronics, computer programming and 3D development. In many cases, the terms hackerspace and makerspace are used interchangeably. Makerspace is a co-working space within a school, library, or separate public or private facility. The main difference between makerspace and hackerspace is that makerspace is usually an entity within an organization whereas hackerspace is an organization in itself. Additionally, makerspaces typically focus on creating tangible objects. Members may be from completely different professions, such as carpenters, metal workers or textile technicians. Hackerspaces are more focused on technological innovations and have members like web developers, coders and programmers.


Hacktivism, which is one of the terms frequently encountered in the modern technology era, is the placement of different messages for political and social purposes on designated institutions, government, company and personal websites. This action is carried out without the knowledge and approval of the site owners, bypassing the security measures of the relevant sites. Hacktivists, who fall under hacking, use these actions not to harm the parties, but to express a certain message, unlike people who are often called black hat hackers. However, it should be noted that depending on the type of attack, Hacktivists can also cause great losses.

What is Hacktivism?
Hacktivists, who act like people called activists today, prefer the virtual world to deliver their messages to large masses instead of physical protests. These people, who are also defined as Cyber-Anarchists, advocate that information should be transparent in events that concern a wide audience or society. However, actions taken in line with this reason may cause certain services to slow down or stop completely on a global scale, leak the personal information of many users, or experience major data losses. Hacktivist actions, which are based on the ability of developing communication opportunities to mobilize large masses of people against global problems, are among cyber crimes because the legal frameworks that physical activists adhere to do not comply.

What Causes Hacktivism?
Hacktivists can use different methods and tools to deliver their intended message and carry out their actions. Among the basic attacks that are frequently encountered around the world;
• Doxing
• DDoS Attacks
• Data Breach
• Vandalism / Hijacking
such situations.

These types of attacks, which can lead to extremely dangerous results in unprotected computer systems where security measures are not taken, can be quite challenging for institutions and individuals, depending on their size and type. For this reason, it is extremely important to take protective measures against such attacks. Measures such as checking criteria such as passwords and firewalls and not using unlicensed software provide basic protection against attacks. For large organizations, more comprehensive measures are needed to protect against cyber attacks and threats, including Hactivism. In this way, effective protection against cyber attacks is provided and the service flow of these organizations is not interrupted.


A hash or "hash function" is a unique identifier for any piece of content in cryptography. It also converts plaintext data of any size into a unique ciphertext of a certain length. Basically, hashing is a way to ensure that any data you send reaches the recipient, completely intact and unaltered. You can better understand cryptographic systems by having knowledge of "What is hash?"

What Does Hash Mean?
The Hash Function is a serious mathematical process that plays a critical role in public key encryption. You can find hash functions used almost everywhere, from signing software applications you use on your phone to securing website links you use to transmit sensitive information online. One of the best aspects of the cryptographic hash function is that it helps you ensure data integrity. Many websites today allow you to store your passwords so you don't have to remember them each time you want to log in. But storing such plaintext passwords on a public server can be dangerous because it leaves this information vulnerable to cybercriminals. Therefore, websites use hashed passwords. As a cryptographic tool, the hash helps secure authentication and ensures the integrity of data across digital channels. The function generally helps users with:
• Storing passwords securely in a database
• Maintaining data integrity (in many different applications) by specifying when data is modified
• Enabling secure authentication
• Organize content and files to increase productivity

How Does the Hash Function Work?
When a message is hashed, a data string of any size is converted to a fixed-length output. In some hash methods, the original data entry is divided into smaller blocks of equal size. If there isn't enough data in any block to be the same size, padding (1s and 0s) can be used to fill it. These individual data blocks are then passed through a hash algorithm, resulting in the output of a hash value. When storing passwords on an online server, a unique, random value is added to the message before running it in the hashing algorithm. Adding just a single character will result in a completely new hash value at the end of the operation. For example, when a text with a few sentences is run with 256 hash algorithm, it looks like "48HCA16A3391B34044FAA46492D116B4D4F61F56352E1E1A01E3201B234509A2" on the screen.


Security on the Internet is provided through various protocols. Thanks to these protocols, websites are classified as either secure or insecure. The question "What is HTTPS?" is very important for both users and site owners. HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). HTTP is a protocol for transferring data over the web via a client-server (web browser-web server) model. HTTPS transfers all data passing between the browser and server to the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) ), using an encryption protocol called Transport Layer Security (TLS), which makes data undecryptable until a site owner unlocks it, allowing users to securely and securely share sensitive data such as passwords and other personal information over the internet or network.

What Does .HTTPS Mean?
HTTPS and HTTP are the same protocol. The main difference is that the HTTPS protocol has an additional layer of encryption (SSL/TLS). HTTP sites switch to HTTPS by obtaining an SSL certificate, sometimes called a security or digital certificate. An SSL certificate is a small data file that protects the transfer of sensitive data between the web browser and the web server. The SSL certificate encrypts this data during the transfer process, making it unreadable. It contains a public key that allows users to securely send sensitive information from their web browser. The domain owner has a private key that decrypts this information when it reaches the server. This public-private key mapping provides a secure connection.

How to Identify a Secure Site?
HTTPS is now the protocol of choice for all activities on the web, as it is the most secure way for users to protect sensitive information. Enhanced web functionality, user experience and data security provide significant benefits to both users and site owners. Since most browsers support HTTPS connections, it is easy to distinguish between secure and unsafe websites. The easiest way to determine whether a website is using HTTP or HTTPS is to check the browser's address bar. HTTP sites use http:// and HTTPS sites use https://. Also, HTTPS websites have a padlock icon to the left of the address bar, indicating that the website has a security certificate. Clicking on the icon will reveal more certificate information, such as the confirmation message, the issuing organization, and the expiration date of the certificate. Most major browsers, including Google Chrome, warn users when entering an HTTP page with a warning screen or pop-up message. Since website security checks are often an included feature, a website's security can also be checked using antivirus software."



With the spread of the use of digital devices in all areas of life, identity theft has also become widespread. This is a very serious issue as thieves can get involved in different crimes by using people's identity information. So, what is identity theft and how to protect it?

What Does Identity Theft Mean?
Identity theft is a term that refers to unauthorized access to personal data. Its area is quite wide. By stealing your identity information, thieves can open an account on your behalf and make purchases. It is also possible for them to access your bank accounts or health history. Identity theft, which can cause victims to experience high financial and moral losses, is a situation faced by millions of people every year around the world.

Ways to Avoid Identity Theft
There are many different methods used in identity theft. Learning these methods and taking your precautions can prevent problems you may experience in the future.
• The most important factor facilitating identity theft is the victim's social media account. Platforms that enable the social engineering method to be applied easily make it possible to access a lot of information about people. Based on this information, people's account passwords can be guessed and used in identity theft. In addition, information such as date of birth and place of birth can be used to directly take over your bank accounts. If you use social media, it is important that you do not include your real name in your profile. You can also protect your personal data by making your accounts open only to people you know.
• You should not forget that those who want your personal information by introducing themselves as a government official can commit identity theft. When you encounter such a situation, you can find out from which institution the person is calling and find the phone number of this institution and call.
• You should be careful while determining the passwords of your accounts. It's important to stay away from guessable passwords that everyone uses and to use random characters that don't make any sense. You should also make sure that the passwords of your different accounts are not the same.
• You should never open e-mails from people you do not know. Malware that can be installed on your device makes identity theft much easier.
• Identity thieves can impersonate the sites of trusted institutions. Thus, when users log in to the site and share their information, the information automatically falls into the hands of thieves. For this reason, you should take care to enter a website directly by typing the official domain name, not from a search engine.
• Movie and music download sites, people who share the free version of licensed programs usually install programs that can hijack your device. Therefore, it is beneficial to use only licensed programs.


IP Spoofing is one of the typical tools hackers use to mine sensitive data, turn compromised computers into zombies for malicious use, or launch attacks such as Denial of Service (DoS). Creating modified IP packets to impersonate another computer system, or both, is considered IP spoofing.

What Does IP Spoofing Mean?
IP spoofing, also known as IP spoofing, is one of the most common types of cyber attacks. Communication between devices connected to the network is achieved by sending and receiving IP packets. All IP packets contain a header consisting of important routing information such as the source address. Spoofing packet addresses is a key vulnerability used in DDoS attacks. DDoS attacks often use spoofing to mask the identity of the malicious source and traffic the target. Another malicious method of IP spoofing is to use a "Man in the Middle" attack to interrupt communication between two computers, exchange packets, and then forward them without the original sender or receiver knowing. In these attacks, hackers can collect a lot of confidential information that they can use or sell. IP spoofing attacks are also used to pretend to be another device. So the responses are sent to the targeted device. Attacks such as NTP Amplification and DNS amplification exploit this vulnerability.

How to Prevent IP Spoofing?
While IP spoofing attacks cannot be prevented, some measures can be taken to stop fraudulent packets from leaking into a network. IP spoofing protection options include monitoring networks for atypical activities, packet filtering to detect inconsistencies, and using strong validation methods. A very common defense technique against spoofing is login filtering. Ingress filtering is a form of packet filtering typically implemented on a network edge device that examines incoming IP packets and looks at source headers. If the resource headers in these packages do not match their origin or appear suspicious, the packages are rejected. Detecting IP spoofing is nearly impossible for end users. However, using secure encryption protocols such as HTTPS and only sites that use them can help minimize the risk of fraud.

K - L - M - P



With the development of technology, it has become much easier to access personal information. Getting this information into the hands of malicious people can cause serious problems. For this reason, people ask "What is KVKK?" It is very important to learn and protect their rights.

What Does KVKK Mean?
KVKK means the law on the protection of personal data. It is a law enacted because the protection of personal data is evaluated within the scope of personal rights. Due to the understanding of the gaps in this area, it was updated in 2010 and is guaranteed by Article 20 of the Constitution. The effective date is April 2016.
Thanks to KVKK, the processing of personal information is limited by certain rules. Unlimited distribution of randomly received information and sharing it with third parties is prevented. In this way, violations of personal rights were prevented and control mechanisms were established.

What is Personal Data?
All information belonging to real persons is considered as personal data. Name, surname, date of birth, T.C. Although information such as identity and social security number, photographs and voice recordings are examples, special evaluations are made according to concrete events.
With the law on the protection of personal data, the concept of explicit consent has emerged. This text indicates that people have consented to the processing of their information. In addition, the limit on the processing of data is also determined. For it to be valid, it is necessary to allow the processing of information with free will.
According to KVKK, the explicit consent text does not have to be written. It can also be taken orally. However, the burden of proof rests with the institution that processes the data. Institutions face various penalties if they process the data of individuals without obtaining an explicit consent text.

Who Covers the Personal Data Protection Law?
Personal data protection law covers real and legal persons. No exceptions have been made between individuals and should be applied to all private and public institutions. Anyone with legal capacity falls within the scope of this law.
KVKK exceptions are divided into two as full and partial exceptions. In full exceptions, it is possible to use it in statistics, science and art to be used in family planning, provided that the information is kept anonymous. In addition, there are exceptions for the investigation and prosecution needed in the proceedings.
Partial exceptions are provided for areas such as making public their information, preventing crime and protecting economic interests.



Local exploit is a vulnerability on a Linux system that allows a user to gain root privileges by performing a specific sequence of actions. The exploit is usually the result of insufficient checks on the user before a privileged application executes a command with root access.

What is Local Exploit?
Local exploit techniques are used to take advantage of various components when there is access to the targeted computer. For example, local exploit alone can be used to escalate privileges after a successful remote attack or if the target machine already has access. Such techniques often allow a standard user to have the privileges of a more privileged user (such as system or root user). It provides a way to escalate privileges to the kernel level in the worst cases. Not all exploits are the same. Many allow to run arbitrary code, while others only allow files to be read or deleted. For example, remote exploit runs over a network and exploits the vulnerability without prior access to the vulnerable system. This way scripts can be run on an external machine. Local exploit requires prior access to the vulnerable system. Exploit usually involves increasing the privileges of the user account running the code. Local exploits do not allow system intrusions as a user account is required first. However, it is often possible for a user to access a system if a strong password policy is not in place or if the system provides user accounts as a service, such as web hosting servers.

What Does Local Exploit Mean?
Local exploits often take advantage of memory corruption, bad permission configuration, and logical vulnerabilities. Memory corruption is memory corruption that occurs in a local service running with elevated privileges. The exploit's ability to exploit such a vulnerability is generally low due to the exploit protection offered by the operating system. The vulnerability caused by bad permission configuration occurs in a local service. It is caused by improper application of privileges or access control lists (ACLs) to objects. In terms of local exploit techniques, logical vulnerabilities are the hardest to find. A logical vulnerability is usually a design flaw that allows a privileged resource to be hijacked by perfectly legitimate means, typically in the same way that antivirus uses.



Mobile Malware is malware specifically designed to target mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets to gain access to private data. This software is not as common as malware attacking computers, but is a growing threat. Especially for companies, where their employees can access corporate networks using their personal devices. Awareness of "What is Mobile Malware?" can increase your security against hackers.

What Does Mobile Malware Mean?
Cybercriminals use various Mobile Malware tools to reach mobile devices. While there are many types of malware, Mobile Malware is generally defined as malicious and harmful program that is downloaded onto the user's device without their knowledge. Most software reaches devices through apps, particularly apps downloaded from third-party app stores or sideloaded onto devices. Mobile Malware can be used to steal sensitive data, abuse device functionality, demand ransom as well as generate fraudulent traffic. For example, ransomware type malicious software shuts down the accessed system and demands a "ransom" payment. When the user pays the ransom, access codes are provided to unlock the mobile device. Crypto-mining malicious software enables attackers to perform calculations from the user device, thereby creating cryptocurrency.

What are the Mobile Malware Methods?
One of the most common methods that attackers use to distribute malicious Mobile Malware codes is mobile phishing. Phishing is the practice of tricking users into providing account or personal information. While phishing has traditionally focused on obtaining credentials via email, phishing via SMS messages (sms phishing) and messaging apps is also common. A popular method of tricking victims into installing malware is to send them links to Android Package (APK) files hosted on attacker-controlled websites via SMS spoofing. For example, users may be asked to click on an SMS link to a fake banking site designed to persuade them to "update the banking app". The update then installs the malicious code, allowing the attacker to gain access and collect credentials. Malware on mobile devices can be detected with Mobile Malware scanning tools. Programs often released by reputable cybersecurity brands work similarly to antivirus applications.



Penetration testing is a kind of control made on the digital infrastructure and information systems of a person, institution or business. The purpose of the penetration test is to detect the vulnerabilities in the information system in question in case a malicious person or persons attack the relevant information system. In this way, these cyber vulnerabilities are closed and malicious possible attacks by people with good intentions are prevented.So, what is a penetration test?

What Does Penetration Testing Mean?
Penetration testing is also known as penetration testing. What kind of data can be obtained by infiltrating the IT infrastructure and cyber system is understood by penetration testing. As a result of the findings obtained by the penetration test, the security vulnerabilities, if any, that are possible to infiltrate are eliminated. Penetration tests can be done most effectively by cybersecurity experts.

With Which Methods Can Penetration Testing Be Applied?
There are three different methods of performing a penetration test. These; are the methods called blackbox, whitebox and graybox. In the Blackbox method, the cyber security expert who will perform the penetration test is not given any information about the relevant system and is expected to try to infiltrate the system like a complete stranger. In the whitebox method, all information related to the information infrastructure is given to the cyber security specialist and he is asked to perform a penetration test using this information. The Graybox method, on the other hand, is like a mixture of both methods. In this method, although some clues about the information infrastructure are given to the cyber security expert, the details are not reported.

What are the Penetration Test Types?
There are different types of penetration tests, depending on the purpose. Penetration test types can be listed as follows:
• Web Based Penetration Test: This penetration test is applied on information systems with internet access such as FTP, mail, DNS and web.
• Network-Based Penetration Test: Network-based penetration tests are performed on the local network where the IT infrastructure is installed.
• Mobile Penetration Test: It is applied on devices with mobile operating systems.
• Cloud-Based Penetration Test: It is applied on the systems that the institution or business uses as cloud-based.
• Analysis of Source Codes: It is a type of test made by analyzing the source codes of software running on information systems.
• DDoS Penetration Test: It is applied to measure the status of the server and internet system against DDoS attacks.
• Wireless Penetration Test: It is applied to analyze attacks against wireless and similar wireless networks.
• VOIP Penetration Test: It is applied to detect the openings on the VOIP system used.


Phishing is one of the most used methods by cybercriminals for data theft. Phishing method, also known as classical phishing email, has dozens of types such as spear phishing, mobile phishing and Wi-Fi twin. By learning "What is phishing?" You can better identify the manipulations of the attackers and avoid traps.

What Does Phishing Mean?
Phishing is a cybersecurity threat and a form of social engineering tactic aimed at collecting private information on the Internet. Phishing scams typically rely on fake websites with URLs that are manipulated to resemble the address of financial or e-commerce websites. A phishing email may try to create a sense of urgency, such as ""Your account has expired"" or ""About your last purchase..."". In the body of the message, the attacker usually invites users to visit a form and asks the user to provide personal data, usually of a financial nature. During the entire procedure, the victim believes that he is interacting with the official website of a trusted organization. Phishing emails are often accompanied by an attachment, which is presented as an invoice. The message is written in a way that encourages the user to open the attachment. By running the attachment, the computer is infected with malware.

What are the Types of Phishing?
Phishing attacks are designed according to the profile of the targeted users. Password replacement attacks send phishing emails with links to fake websites, such as mobile account login pages of well-known email providers, and prompt users to enter credentials and other information to reset their passwords or because their account has expired. Malicious websites use subtle changes to known URLs to confuse users. Another type most favored by attackers, spear phishing attacks target network administrators or account administrators in organizations. Phishing targeted emails often address the user by name and use familiar language to encourage immediate action. One type of targeted hunt, also known as "CEO scam", involves an email sent from an email address that the user knows, such as a CEO, HR manager, or IT support. The email prompts the user to take immediate action to transfer money, update employee details, or install new applications on their computer.

How to Identify Phishing? For all internet users, especially those who use company equipment or have access to sensitive data, being able to identify suspicious emails is an important step in security. The most common signs that can help identify a phishing email are:
• An unfamiliar tone or greeting
• Grammatical and spelling errors
• Inconsistencies in email addresses, links, and domain names
• Threats or a sense of urgency
• Unusual requests


Phreak is a slang term for hacking phone networks and devices. People who carry out phreaking attacks are called "phreakers." For example, a phishing attack could involve gaining unauthorized access to telephone networks and creating clandestine group calls in the network infrastructure. Phreaking is an old technique but is resurging in popularity with the development of Voice over IP (VoIP) networks. It can help you be more aware of the serious threats it poses.

What Does Phreaker Mean?
Phreaker was first used in the late 60s for those who wanted to "hack" the telephone network. It is derived from the words freak (curious) and phone (phone). Professional and highly organized PBX hackers who illegally and covertly access phone systems for their own unauthorized use are called phreaks or phreakers. It is used today to encompass anyone who hacks or tries to break the security of any telecommunications network. The typical phreaker attempts to identify and manipulate the various audio frequencies associated with the tones used to provide various services to telephone customers. Attacks use a specially made "box" designed to "fool" the network in some way. Different boxes, named with different colors, are used for different phreak approaches. For example, black boxes are used to make free calls from a home phone, and red boxes from payphones. The blue box gives full control over the phone system.

What Are Phreaker Threats?
Phreak targets mostly VoIP systems today, with the transformation of phone technologies from analog to digital. Voice over IP, or VoIP, is an internet technology that relies on online infrastructure to make phone calls. Phreakers usually attack during the hours or weekends when they are least likely to be detected, and when they do, the phone bills they generate through unauthorized call traffic are often 10 to 100 times higher than normal. Once an experienced phreaker accesses your phone system, they can reprogram the phone system, including eavesdropping on your phone calls, adding their own voice to your calls, and denying access. Typical phreaking attacks, such as crashing the phone system, corrupting the database, and blocking access by flooding the PBX with unauthorized calls, can cause serious harm, especially to enterprises.

R - S - T - V - W



Ransomware is a kind of malicious software that prevents the victim from accessing his/her personal computer and demands a ransom in return. This type of software is also called "pirate software" in different sources. The amount of ransom demanded in return for opening computer access and the reason why the victim pays this amount depends on the type of virus. So what is ransomware?

What Does Ransomware Mean?
Ransomware is malicious software that infects computers that are becoming more widespread and developing day by day. When this type of software infects the computer, it encrypts many data such as photos, save files of games, other files, databases on the computer to prevent access. When these files are encrypted, you cannot open the files or access the data in them. Hackers who orchestrate this type of attack demand a ransom in exchange for a private key that can open your files.

Types of Ransomware
While there are several types of ransomware that force computer users to pay ransom, which does so in various ways, the most common ones are:
• File Encrypting Ransomware
File encrypting ransomware is usually made with trojan (trojan horse) viruses. Once these viruses enter the computer, they find the most frequently used files and encrypt them. Usually, files that the computer owner cares about, such as music files, photos, videos, work files, are encrypted. Finally, a large warning window pops up saying that the only way to unlock these encrypted files is to pay the ransom.
• Non-File Encrypting Ransomware
The non-file-encrypting ransomware type blocks the entire computer system instead of encrypting individual frequently used files, and the user is asked to pay a ransom. Usually this type of malware has a warning message as if it is government related. Hackers often send warning messages under names such as the police, the CIA, Europol or the FBI. In these messages, there are statements that there are illegal files on the computer and that users must pay this ransom if they do not want to go to jail.
• Browser-Locking Ransomware
Instead of infecting the computer system, this type of malware works like a JavaScript file and sends a fake warning message. In this message, illegal sites that users enter are usually referenced and it is stated that a ransom must be paid in order not to go to jail. Of course, as might be expected, hackers have nothing to do with government departments."



With the increasing number of internet users, the number of online content also increases. In this intense flow of information, you may want to prevent your children and loved ones from accessing objectionable content. You can benefit from a secure internet service for a virtual network that is free from websites that may be harmful to your family and may negatively affect them. This service, which is very useful for children, is limited by the coverage of the internet you use, so it does not provide protection outside the house.

What is Safe Internet?
Secure internet service is provided free of charge by service providers. It helps protect you and your family from harmful content found on the internet. It is offered with two profile options, child and family. You do not need to install software for use. It is enough to call the customer service of the company that you use the internet service from. You can cancel or change your profile settings after you start using the secure internet service. In this context, no withdrawal fee or profile change fee is charged by the companies. It is not offered under any agreement or commitment. Although it is a public service, it is mostly preferred by individual users as it offers limited internet access.

What Are Safe Internet Profiles?
Child profile is a profile that prevents access to sites that are not suitable for your children's access by the Information Technologies and Communications Authority (BTK). The general features of this profile are as follows:
• Assistance is taken from academicians working in the fields of pedagogy, sociology and psychology in the creation of the profile.
• You cannot use sites where everyone can share content, such as chat and social media sites.
• With the help of the measures taken, your children are prevented from communicating with strangers.
• You can access the websites of banking, shopping, music, fixed content games, public and private institutions.

The scope of the family profile, which is another secure internet profile, is also determined by the BTK. In this context, access to domain names, subdomains, IP addresses and ports that are objectionable to your family is blocked. The main attributes of the family profile are as follows:
• Addresses containing data such as gambling, drugs, obscenity, violence, fraud and malware are prevented from being displayed.
• Access to websites that sell products declared harmful by the Ministry of Health is also blocked.
• You can log in to personal sites, forums and sharing sites.
• You can unblock certain gaming, chat and social media sites by changing the profile setting.


Spam is any form of unsolicited digital communication that is sent in bulk. Spam is usually sent via email, but can also be distributed via text messages, phone calls, or social media. Email providers are pretty good at filtering spam, but when messages reach your inbox, You can also report them. You can also choose to block the sender, usually in the same step as reporting the message. While it's not possible to avoid spam completely, knowing "what is spam?" can protect you better from risks.

What Does Spam Mean?
Spam is a form of communication that consists of unsolicited and usually commercial messages sent to a large number of recipients or broadcast in many places. Malware spam or malspam is a spam message that distributes malware to your device. Unsuspecting readers who click a link or open an email attachment; encounters one type of malware, including ransomware, Trojans, bots, information thieves, crypto miners, spyware, and keyloggers. Malicious scripts are often inserted into a familiar type of file, such as a Word document, PDF file, or PowerPoint presentation. When the attachment is opened, the scripts run and the malware becomes active. Many forms of communication are used to send spam messages in bulk. Some of these are marketing messages selling unwanted goods. Other types of spam messages can spread malware, trick you into revealing your personal information, or scare you into thinking you have to pay to get out of a bad situation. Email spam filters catch most such messages.

What are the Major Attacks with Spam?
One of the typical types of spam, phishing emails are a type of unsolicited email that cybercriminals send to many people in hopes of "attracting" a few. Phishing emails trick victims into providing sensitive information such as website sessions or credit card details. Phishing is the simplest type of cyber attack and also the most dangerous. Fake emails spoof or spoof an email from a legitimate sender. Common email spoofing can be spam messages, a request to pay an unpaid bill, a request to reset your password or verify your account, or verify purchases you didn't make. In tech support scam, the spam message indicates that you have a technical problem and that you need to contact technical support by calling the phone number or clicking a link in the message. Such spam, such as email spoofing, often says it comes from a big tech company like Microsoft or a known cybersecurity company.


Malware that records the activities of computer users on the computer is called spyware. Spyware can infect not only computers but also almost any device connected to the Internet, and can monitor the activities of the device in question. This situation, which violates personal data privacy, violates the privacy of the user. It collects data and causes it to be used for malicious purposes. Many data such as visited web pages, saved passwords, typing on the keyboard, online purchases are the target of spyware. So, what is spyware?

What Does Spyware Mean?
Spyware is a type of software that records the activities of any device connected to the internet and uses it maliciously without the knowledge of the owner. Those who develop spyware can use the personal user data obtained in this way directly as a blackmail and threat, or they can also sell it to third-party data collection companies without the knowledge of the user. In addition, if the collected data includes bank and credit card passwords, these cards can be used without the owner's knowledge.

How to Tell if Spyware Infected?
Most spyware is used not only to collect data but also to display advertisements on the infected device for profit. Therefore, it may be possible to detect whether you are infected with spyware. On the other hand, in order not to be exposed to any spyware, unknown links should not be clicked, unknown files should not be downloaded, unknown websites should not be accessed and a reliable antivirus program should be used. If one or more of the items listed below are observed on the device, it is likely that the device is infected with spyware:
• Constantly opening unwanted advertisement windows
• Slowing device or internet speed
• Unhealthy operation of antivirus programs and constant warning
• The formation of unknown and unknown files in the files
• Constant change of Internet browser settings or landing page

What are the types of spyware?
Types of spyware can be listed as follows:
• Keylogger
Keyloggers are a type of spyware that monitors and records keystrokes typed on the keyboard and uses this data for its own benefit.
• Hijack
It is spyware that uses various features of the device it is in according to its own will. There are separate Hijack types for modems or browsers.
• Adware
It is a type of spyware that constantly displays unwanted advertisements and downloads various files to the infected device.
• Diallers
It is a type of spyware that calls toll phone lines without the user's knowledge and spends hours on these lines, leaving the user alone with large amounts of phone bills.


Today, the number of websites has increased and it has started to be used by almost every company. In addition, many people have opened their own websites. However, with the proliferation of websites, network attacks have also become widespread. SQL injection is one of the most used methods to infiltrate the website. "SQL What is an injection?” You can take the necessary precautions to protect your website.

What Does SQL Injection Mean?
SQL is a term used to describe databases. SQL injection attacks can be defined as methods that aim to infiltrate the database by taking advantage of the vulnerabilities in the server or the software used.
A hacker detects vulnerabilities in sites before attacking. There are various methods for this. For example, if you are using ready-made systems such as Wordpress, Joomla, they learn the version you are using from the open source code and proceed through the vulnerabilities of this version. In addition, if you are using a shared server, it is possible to infiltrate through the hosting used by other websites.

What Can Be Done With SQL Injection?
• It is possible for an attacker to log into your server with the SQL injection method. In this way, the attacker gains unlimited control over your website by adding himself among the database users.
• Some information on your website may only be available to private individuals. With SQL injection, an attacker can access pages that are not allowed to view.
• Credit card theft is among the worst transactions that can be made with SQL injection. Especially e-commerce sites should work very carefully in this regard. Otherwise, users may be left in a difficult situation by providing access to the credit cards registered in the accounts.
• Attackers who have infiltrated your database can change the information on the site and use it according to their wishes. This method is often used by hacktivists or hacklink sellers.

SQL Injection Protection Ways
• One of the measures you can take to protect your website against attacks by SQL injection is to ensure the security of your passwords. Usually, passwords are captured by the method called brute force and the site is infiltrated.
• You should be sure of the reliability of the hosting company you use. In addition, you will use shared hosting, it is important for the company to take security measures so that there is no transition between services.
• Although you use quality software, you should consider that there may be security vulnerabilities. However, these vulnerabilities are resolved in a short time with the new update. For this reason, you should take care to keep the software you use up-to-date.



Trojan horse is one of the malicious software that affects millions of users all over the world. Unlike computer viruses or worms, it does not copy itself, so it must be installed by the user. For the Trojan to work and attack the system, its executable (.exe) file must be installed and run." Knowing about "What is a Trojan horse?" can help protect you against the virus.

What Does Trojan Horse Mean?
A trojan or trojan is a type of malware that is usually disguised as an attachment in an email or a free download file and then transferred to the user's device. These emails are sent as spam to reach as many people's inboxes as possible. When email is opened and malicious attachment is downloaded, it performs the attacker-designed task, such as gaining backdoor access to corporate systems, spying on users' online activities, or stealing sensitive data. The Trojan can easily infect devices through social engineering techniques that cybercriminals use to force users to download a malicious app. The malicious file can be hidden in banners or links on websites. A computer infected with Trojan malware can spread it to other computers. The hardware can be turned into a zombie computer and controlled remotely without the user's knowledge. Hackers can then use the zombie computer to continue sharing malware over a network of devices known as a botnet.

What are the Trojan Horse Types?
There are many types of Trojan viruses that cybercriminals use to perform different actions and different attack methods. Backdoor Trojan allows an attacker to gain remote access to a computer and take control of the computer using a backdoor. It allows the attacker to do whatever the attacker wants, be it deleting files, restarting the computer, stealing data or installing malware. The infected computer can also be used to create a botnet through a zombie computer network. The Banking Trojan targets users' banking accounts and financial information. It tries to steal account data for credit and debit cards, e-payment systems and online banking systems. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) Trojan programs perform attacks that overload a network with traffic. It sends multiple requests from one computer or a group of computers to throttle a target web address and cause a denial of service. Trojan downloaders target an already infected computer and download and install more malicious programs. The Exploit Trojan contains code or data that exploits certain vulnerabilities in an application or computer system. The cybercriminal uses the code in the program to target users and exploit a known vulnerability through a method such as a phishing attack.

What Should Be Done to Avoid Trojan Horse?
Effective cybersecurity software creates a shield against Trojan horse. Also, following these steps can help protect you from future attacks:
• Never download software from an untrusted source.
• Do not open an attachment or run a program sent to you in an e-mail from someone you do not know.
• Keep all software on your computer up to date with the latest patches.



Computer viruses are programs that spread just like biological viruses and take unexpected actions when they infect any computer. While not all viruses are dangerous, many are written to destroy certain types of files, applications, or operating systems. It can perform very dangerous actions, such as deleting files on a disk or the entire hard disk. Knowing the answer to the question "What is a virus?" and learning the methods of infection can help increase your cyber security.

What Does Virus Mean?
Computer viruses can spread via the Internet through a number of different mechanisms, reaching your computer in various ways. Hackers can hide viruses in apps, documents sent via file sharing services, add-ons, and other places you download frequently. Emails containing malicious attachments are one of the most preferred methods of cybercriminals. These attachments are usually placed in the email as executable files such as ZIP or EXE. Viruses can also spread via trending messaging services such as SMS, Facebook Messenger, WhatsApp and Instagram. Like emails, these applications may contain infected malicious links, attachments, or executable files. It is also common practice for viruses to hide in online advertisements such as banner ads.

How is the virus transmitted?
Computer viruses generally work in two ways. As soon as the first species enters a new computer, it begins to multiply. The second type launches malicious code after a period of inactivity, as with infected programs. Latest computer viruses; it has evolved to circumvent antivirus software and other advanced security levels. The main target is usually theft of passwords or data, entering keys, corrupting files or even controlling the device. Computer viruses can spread through internet downloads, email attachments, infected removable disks such as flash drives, malicious links on social networks, and more. An infected computer usually has typical symptoms such as automatically starting unknown applications, opening frequent pop-ups, changes in browser homepage, suspicious changes in folders, low system memory, suspicious CHKDSK error messages, computer slowdown. Symptoms vary depending on the type of virus. For example, the boot virus sneaks into the boot sector of the computer to directly infect the system memory. Such viruses are usually spread through hardware such as USB drives and CDs. Viruses such as Trojan horses are programs that spread mostly over the internet. The program advertises itself as a useful program, but its original function is unknown to the user. These viruses are often used to disable the security of the computer.



Today, most of the companies reach their customers through the website. However, with the increase in the number of websites, cyber attacks have also increased. In order to ensure the security of your website, "What is web security?" It would be beneficial for you to learn about the issue and take your precautions.

What Does Web Security Mean?
Web threats are methods used to damage a website. The purpose may be to infiltrate the site or to capture the information of the visitors. Generally, vulnerabilities on the site are exploited. Web security is all of the measures taken to prevent possible leaks on websites. For this, there are experts who detect the weaknesses of the site and do the necessary work. You can also use some tips to take your own precautions.

How is Web Security Provided?
• The most important precaution you should take to ensure the security of your website is to strengthen your passwords. Research has shown that many people use passwords that are easy to guess, such as "12345", "password". It is important that you choose your website password unique from your other passwords. It is also important that your passwords contain lowercase and uppercase letters, numbers and special characters.
• You should pay attention to the security of your devices. It is possible to learn your website passwords and infiltrate your website through viruses on your computer. For this reason, you should be careful not to download files from sources you do not know to your computer.
• It is important to pay attention when choosing the server you will use. Regularly updating the software on the server and taking security measures can prevent attacks on your site. In addition, as much as possible, you can get service from companies that have a wall between the hostings on the server.
• It is possible to infiltrate the database with SQL injection method, especially in ready-made software such as Wordpress and Joomla. Thus, all the data on your site can be deleted or modified. In order to avoid this situation, it is important to keep your software up to date.
• Ddos attackers are attacks aimed at making the website offline. These attacks occur because the bot users are heavily redirected to the site and the server crashes. These bot accounts are usually of foreign origin. To prevent attacks, you can block overseas IP addresses. It is also beneficial to take server-side measures.
• It is possible to infiltrate sites thanks to malicious software installed on open source software. In order to prevent it, you can regularly scan for security and take advantage of ready-made security plugins.


When a hacker is mentioned, many people think of people related to cybercrime. However, white hat hacking is a completely legal profession. Today, white hat hackers work at important positions in large companies. So, what is a white hat hacker?

What Does White Hat Hacker Mean?
White hat hackers do not work to illegally infiltrate people's computers or make software unusable. People who are on the better side of the business try to reveal security vulnerabilities in the system and try to close them. White hat hackers, which have an important place in especially large e-commerce sites, examine all security leaks that may occur and take precautions before an attack. Generally, they are seen as more ignorant than black hat hackers. On the contrary, they must have full mastery of all attack methods in order to take precautions.

What Do White Hat Hackers Do?
With the advancing technology, governments and companies keep all their important information on technological devices and use the internet to reach their customers, making network security much more important. The work area of ​​white hat hackers, also called cyber security experts, has expanded considerably. They can work not only in private companies but also in government offices to ensure network security. White hat hackers working in positions such as information system analyst, technology consultant, cyber security expert; they have to improve themselves in many areas such as social engineering, brute force hacking, SQL injection, social engineering. Researches show that they are sought after 20% more in the last 5 years. This increase in demand was directly reflected in their earnings.

How to Get Ethical Hacker Training?
There is no undergraduate or associate degree that you can directly complete to become a white hat hacker. However, it is easier for computer and software engineering to progress in this field. In addition, you should not forget that companies usually require a bachelor's degree as a requirement. You can also attend various courses and certificate programs to improve yourself in the field of cyber security. Training in various fields such as physical security, web servers, malware, system hacking, and malware will help you improve yourself.